In this blog, we will learn about selenium framework, data-driven framework in selenium, hybrid framework, framework in selenium, and keyword driven framework in selenium. So let’s get started with the selenium framework!!
What is Selenium Framework?
Selenium Framework is a code structure that assists to create simple code maintenance. Without frameworks, we will set the “code” as well as “data” in the same place which is neither readable nor reusable. By utilizing frameworks, generate beneficial consequences like heightened code re-usage, reduced script maintenance cost, higher portability, increased code readability, etc.
There are largely three kinds of frameworks established by Selenium WebDriver to automate manual test cases:
- Data-Driven Test Framework
- Keyword Driven Test Framework
- Hybrid Test Framework
Now let’s look at these three kinds of frameworks in detail.
Data-Driven Framework in Selenium
Data-Driven Framework in Selenium is a procedure of segregating data sets from the test case. Once the information sets are separated from the test case, it can be effortlessly altered for a particular functionality without changing the code. It is utilized to obtain test cases and suites from external files like .xml, Excel, .csv, or some database tables. We can also say that a Data-Driven Framework in Selenium is a strategy of separating the “data set” from the real “test case” (code). Since the test case is isolated from the data set, one can easily modify the test case of a specific functionality without creating modifications to the code.
For instance, if one has to change the code for login functionality. They can modify only the login functionality rather of having to modify any other characteristic dependent on the same code. One can easily heighten the number of test parameters by expanding more username and password fields to the excel file or other sources. If you want to read or write an Excel, then Apache delivers a very prominent library POI. This library is worthy enough to read and write both XLSX and XLS file formats of Excel. Moreover, to read XLS files, an HSSF performance is delivered by the POI library.
Let’s look at some advantages of Data-Driven Testing framework below:
- It enables testing of the application with many sets of data values during regression testing
- It segregates the test case data from the executable test script
- Allows reusing of Actions and Functions in various tests
By integrating data-driven testing using Selenium, testers can improve their test cases for more productive performance. This shortens timelines, makes their lives easier, and outcomes in more completely tested and favorable quality software.
Keyword Driven Framework in Selenium
Keyword Driven Framework in Selenium is a procedure utilized for speeding up automated testing by segregating keywords for a familiar set of instructions and functions. All the operations and instructions to be accomplished are written in some external file like an Excel sheet. The users can effortlessly control and determine the functionalities they prefer to test. The concept behind the Keyword Driven approach in automation is to segregate the coding from the test case and test step.
This enables a non-technical person to learn automation very well. With this, a manual tester can jot down Automation scripts. This does not imply that an automation tester is not required but in any Keyword Driven project, a hardcore technical coder is required for setting up the framework and to function on regular modifications and updates of background automation code. But for instance, an automation team can possess two manual testers and an automation coder.
Let just understand this notion with the aid of an illustration. You should assess that you have to automate a flow where you would require to do the following things given below:
- Open a Browser
- Navigate to URL
- Click on the My Account button
- Enter Username
- Enter Password
- Click on the login button
- Click on the Logout button
- Close the Browser
Hybrid Driven Framework is a blend of both the frameworks i.e. Data-Driven and Keyword-Driven framework. The keywords here, as well as the test data, are externalized. Keywords are strengthened in a separate Java class file and the test data can be maintained either in a properties file or excel file or can utilize the data provider of a TestNG framework. Hybrid Framework in Selenium is a notion where we are utilizing the benefit of both Keyword driven framework as well as the Data-driven framework.
It is susceptible to use a framework that facilitates manual testers to establish test cases by only looking at the test data, keywords, and object repository without coding in the framework. Hybrid Driven framework is primarily utilized by manual testers who do not possess ample knowledge of programming languages. Such people can barely have a look at the Keywords, Test data, Object repository, and begin building the test case right away, without having to code anything in the framework.
Now let’s have a glimpse of the components Of the Hybrid Driven Framework.
The components or elements of the Hybrid Framework are identical to the factors of the Keyword Driven Framework wherein every Test Data, as well as the Keywords, are externalized preparing the script appears in a further generalized form
- Function Library
- Excel Sheet to store Keywords
- Design Test Case Template
- Object Repository for Elements or Locators
- Test Scripts or Driver Script
To conclude thus, a Hybrid Framework can be built and utilized to automate any application. This, in turn, will decrease the man-hours used in scripting the automation code. Since a framework once developed can be utilized to automate numerous applications. Similarly, selenium framework can be formulated according to the project desires and utilized for automation objectives. We can create three types of test framework using Selenium WebDriver and these are Data-Driven, Keyword Driven, and Hybrid test framework. As we have discussed above in the blog, we can accomplish a Data-driven framework using TestNG’s data provider.
In a Keyword driven framework, keywords are written down in some files that are external like excel file, and java code will name this file and implement test cases. The hybrid framework is a combination of keyword-driven and data-driven framework.