User acceptance testing is a kind of testing performed by the end-user for clients to verify the software system before the software application moves into the production environment. UAT is performed in the final phases of testing after functional, integration, and system testing are done.
Purpose of user acceptance testing
The main purpose of UAT is validating end-to-end business flow. It doesn't focus on cosmetic errors, spelling mistakes, or system testing. User acceptance testing process is carried out in a different testing environment with a production-like data setup. It is a kind of black-box testing where two or more end users are involved.
Who Performs UAT?
- End users
The need for user acceptance testing
Once the software has been through unit, integration, and system testing the need for user acceptance testing plan arises as developers might have built software based on the requirements document by their understanding. And for the required changes during development may not be communicated effectively to them. So while testing, if the final product is accepted by the client or end-user, a user acceptance testing plan, is required.
Developers build software dependent on the requirements document that is their understanding of the requirements and may not be what the clients expect from the software. Requirements of a change during the project and may not be communicated effectively to the developers.
Prerequisites of user acceptance testing
Following are the basic entry criteria for user acceptance testing:
- Business requirements should be available.
- Application code should be fully developed.
- Unit testing, integration testing, and system testing should be completed.
- No show stoppers, high or medium defects in the system integration test phase.
- Cosmetic errors are acceptable before UAT.
- Regression testing should be performed with no major defects.
- All reported defects should be mixed and tested before UAT.
- All testing should have a traceability matrix completed.
- The acceptance testing environment should be kept ready.
- If the system is ready out for UAT execution, sign your mail for communication from the system testing team.
How to Perform UAT Testing?
The intended users of the system or program perform UAT. This sort of Software Testing is typically performed at the client's location and is referred to as Beta Testing. Once the entry criteria for UAT are met, the following tasks must be completed by the testers:
- Analysis of Business Requirements
- Creation of UAT test plan
- Identify Test Scenarios
- Create UAT Test Cases
- Preparation of Test Data(Production like Data)
- Run the Test cases
- Record the Results
- Confirm business objectives
Step 1. Analysis of Business Requirements
Identifying and developing test scenarios is one of the most significant activities in UAT. These test scenarios are based on the papers listed below:
- The Project Charter
- Use Cases in Business
- Diagrams of Process Flow
- System Requirements Specification (BRD)
Step 2. Creation of UAT test plan
It describes the admission and exit criteria for UAT, the strategy to test scenarios and test cases, and the testing durations.
Step 3. Identify Test Scenarios and Test Cases
Identify test scenarios in relation to high-level business processes and construct test cases with specific test procedures. Most UAT scenarios should be adequately covered by test cases. Business use cases are used to generate test cases.
Step 4. Test Data Preparation
It is better to utilize live data for UAT. For privacy and security concerns, data should be jumbled. The database flow should be familiar to the tester.
Step 5. Run the program and record the results
Execute test cases and report any issues that arise. Re-test bugs once they've been fixed. For execution, test management tools might be employed.
Step 6. Confirm that the business objectives have been met
After UAT testing, Business Analysts or UAT Testers must submit a sign-off email. After approval, the product is ready for manufacturing. UAT testing deliverables include a test plan, UAT scenarios and test cases, test results, and a defect log.
UAT exit criteria
Before commencing production, the following factors must be considered:
- There are no serious flaws.
- Open The business process functions successfully
- UAT All stakeholders are invited to a final meeting to sign off on the project.
Qualities of UAT Testers
A UAT Tester should be well-versed in the industry. He/She should be self-sufficient and conceive of himself/herself as an unknown user of the system. To ensure the effectiveness of the UAT, the tester should be an analytical and lateral thinker who can mix various types of data.
Testers, Business Analysts, and Subject Matter Experts who understand the company's needs or flows may generate test cases and data that are relevant to the business.
User Acceptance Testing Best Practices
To ensure UAT success, the following user acceptance testing best practices must be considered:
- Create a UAT plan early in the project's life cycle.
- Prepare a Checklist before beginning the UAT.
- Pre-UAT sessions should be held during the System Testing phase.
- Set explicit expectations and specify the scope of UAT.
- Avoid system tests by testing the entire business flow.
- Real-world scenarios and data should be used to test the system or application.
- Consider yourself as a new user of the system.
- Carry out Usability Testing
- Conduct Before going into production, there will be a feedback session and a meeting.
There are various tools available on the market for user acceptability testing, some of which are mentioned below for your convenience:
- Fitness Tool: It is a java utility that is used as a testing engine. It is simple to design tests and record findings in a table. Users submit structured input into the program, and tests are generated automatically. The tests are then run, and the results are provided to the user.
- Watir: It is a toolkit used during user acceptability testing to automate browser-based tests. Ruby is the programming language that ruby and Internet Explorer employ for inter-process communication.
Some Example Guidelines of UAT
UAT is often performed in the QA environment in conventional software development situations. If there is no staging or UAT environment, UAT is divided into Beta and Alpha testing, however, this is less significant when developing software for a service-based sector. When the consumer is more involved in the testing process, it makes more sense.
The full form of UAT in software engineering is User Acceptance Testing process. UAT is one of the numerous types of testing that have arisen in the previous twenty-five years. Instead of presuming, UAT allows the client to know "What to Expect" from the product. The advantage of UAT is that there will be no shocks when the product hits the market.